Capital Structure – Meaning and Factors Determining Capital Structure

Meaning of Capital Structure
Capital Structure is referred to as the ratio of different kinds of securities raised by a firm as long-term finance. The capital structure involves two decisions-

Type of securities to be issued are equity shares, preference shares and long term borrowings (Debentures).
Relative ratio of securities can be determined by process of capital gearing. On this basis, the companies are divided into two-
Highly geared companies – Those companies whose proportion of equity capitalization is small.
Low geared companies – Those companies whose equity capital dominates total capitalization.
For instance – There are two companies A and B. Total capitalization amounts to be USD 200,000 in each case. The ratio of equity capital to total capitalization in company A is USD 50,000, while in company B, ratio of equity capital is USD 150,000 to total capitalization, i.e, in Company A, proportion is 25% and in company B, proportion is 75%. In such cases, company A is considered to be a highly geared company and company B is low geared company.

Factors Determining Capital Structure
Trading on Equity- The word “equity” denotes the ownership of the company. Trading on equity means taking advantage of equity share capital to borrowed funds on reasonable basis. It refers to additional profits that equity shareholders earn because of issuance of debentures and preference shares. It is based on the thought that if the rate of dividend on preference capital and the rate of interest on borrowed capital is lower than the general rate of company’s earnings, equity shareholders are at advantage which means a company should go for a judicious blend of preference shares, equity shares as well as debentures. Trading on equity becomes more important when expectations of shareholders are high.
Degree of control- In a company, it is the directors who are so called elected representatives of equity shareholders. These members have got maximum voting rights in a concern as compared to the preference shareholders and debenture holders. Preference shareholders have reasonably less voting rights while debenture holders have no voting rights. If the company’s management policies are such that they want to retain their voting rights in their hands, the capital structure consists of debenture holders and loans rather than equity shares.
Flexibility of financial plan- In an enterprise, the capital structure should be such that there is both contractions as well as relaxation in plans. Debentures and loans can be refunded back as the time requires. While equity capital cannot be refunded at any point which provides rigidity to plans. Therefore, in order to make the capital structure possible, the company should go for issue of debentures and other loans.
Choice of investors- The company’s policy generally is to have different categories of investors for securities. Therefore, a capital structure should give enough choice to all kind of investors to invest. Bold and adventurous investors generally go for equity shares and loans and debentures are generally raised keeping into mind conscious investors.
Capital market condition- In the lifetime of the company, the market price of the shares has got an important influence. During the depression period, the company’s capital structure generally consists of debentures and loans. While in period of boons and inflation, the company’s capital should consist of share capital generally equity shares.
Period of financing- When company wants to raise finance for short period, it goes for loans from banks and other institutions; while for long period it goes for issue of shares and debentures.
Cost of financing- In a capital structure, the company has to look to the factor of cost when securities are raised. It is seen that debentures at the time of profit earning of company prove to be a cheaper source of finance as compared to equity shares where equity shareholders demand an extra share in profits.
Stability of sales- An established business which has a growing market and high sales turnover, the company is in position to meet fixed commitments. Interest on debentures has to be paid regardless of profit. Therefore, when sales are high, thereby the profits are high and company is in better position to meet such fixed commitments like interest on debentures and dividends on preference shares. If company is having unstable sales, then the company is not in position to meet fixed obligations. So, equity capital proves to be safe in such cases.
Sizes of a company- Small size business firms capital structure generally consists of loans from banks and retained profits. While on the other hand, big companies having goodwill, stability and an established profit can easily go for issuance of shares and debentures as well as loans and borrowings from financial institutions. The bigger the size, the wider is total capitalization.

Trade, financial openness and dual banking economies: Evidence from GCC Region


This paper investigates the comparative impact of trade and financial openness on Islamic and conventional banks.

Trade and financial openness have a positive impact on Islamic bank profitability.

Simultaneous openness to both trade and capital markets reduces the profitability of Islamic banks.

Trade and financial openness increase the loan volume but reduce the stability of Islamic banks.

The recent wave of liberalization in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries has opened up a debate on the role of Islamic finance in the financial development of an economy. Using a comprehensive dataset of 43 Islamic and 49 conventional banks for the period 2007–2015, in this paper, we investigate the impact of trade and financial openness on financial development in the GCC region. We find that trade and financial openness have a positive effect on the profitability of both banking systems, while the interaction term of openness is negative for the profitability of Islamic banks. Moreover, trade and financial openness affect Islamic banks differently than conventional banks. Notably, we unveil that trade and financial openness decrease the loan volume of Islamic banks but reduce the stability of both Islamic and conventional banks.

Financial Management – Meaning, Objectives and Functions

Meaning of Financial Management
Financial Management means planning, organizing, directing and controlling the financial activities such as procurement and utilization of funds of the enterprise. It means applying general management principles to financial resources of the enterprise.

Investment decisions includes investment in fixed assets (called as capital budgeting). Investment in current assets are also a part of investment decisions called as working capital decisions.
Financial decisions – They relate to the raising of finance from various resources which will depend upon decision on type of source, period of financing, cost of financing and the returns thereby.
Dividend decision – The finance manager has to take decision with regards to the net profit distribution. Net profits are generally divided into two:
Dividend for shareholders- Dividend and the rate of it has to be decided.
Retained profits- Amount of retained profits has to be finalized which will depend upon expansion and diversification plans of the enterprise.
Objectives of Financial Management
The financial management is generally concerned with procurement, allocation and control of financial resources of a concern. The objectives can be-

To ensure regular and adequate supply of funds to the concern.
To ensure adequate returns to the shareholders which will depend upon the earning capacity, market price of the share, expectations of the shareholders.
To ensure optimum funds utilization. Once the funds are procured, they should be utilized in maximum possible way at least cost.
To ensure safety on investment, i.e, funds should be invested in safe ventures so that adequate rate of return can be achieved.
To plan a sound capital structure-There should be sound and fair composition of capital so that a balance is maintained between debt and equity capital.
Functions of Financial Management
Estimation of capital requirements: A finance manager has to make estimation with regards to capital requirements of the company. This will depend upon expected costs and profits and future programmes and policies of a concern. Estimations have to be made in an adequate manner which increases earning capacity of enterprise.
Determination of capital composition: Once the estimation have been made, the capital structure have to be decided. This involves short- term and long- term debt equity analysis. This will depend upon the proportion of equity capital a company is possessing and additional funds which have to be raised from outside parties.
Choice of sources of funds: For additional funds to be procured, a company has many choices like-
Issue of shares and debentures
Loans to be taken from banks and financial institutions
Public deposits to be drawn like in form of bonds.
Choice of factor will depend on relative merits and demerits of each source and period of financing.
Investment of funds: The finance manager has to decide to allocate funds into profitable ventures so that there is safety on investment and regular returns is possible.
Disposal of surplus: The net profits decision have to be made by the finance manager. This can be done in two ways:
Dividend declaration – It includes identifying the rate of dividends and other benefits like bonus.
Retained profits – The volume has to be decided which will depend upon expansional, innovational, diversification plans of the company.
Management of cash: Finance manager has to make decisions with regards to cash management. Cash is required for many purposes like payment of wages and salaries, payment of electricity and water bills, payment to creditors, meeting current liabilities, maintainance of enough stock, purchase of raw materials, etc.
Financial controls: The finance manager has not only to plan, procure and utilize the funds but he also has to exercise control over finances. This can be done through many techniques like ratio analysis, financial forecasting, cost and profit control, etc.

Finance Functions

The following explanation will help in understanding each finance function in detail

Investment Decision
One of the most important finance functions is to intelligently allocate capital to long term assets. This activity is also known as capital budgeting. It is important to allocate capital in those long term assets so as to get maximum yield in future. Following are the two aspects of investment decision

Evaluation of new investment in terms of profitability
Comparison of cut off rate against new investment and prevailing investment.
Since the future is uncertain therefore there are difficulties in calculation of expected return. Along with uncertainty comes the risk factor which has to be taken into consideration. This risk factor plays a very significant role in calculating the expected return of the prospective investment. Therefore while considering investment proposal it is important to take into consideration both expected return and the risk involved.

Investment decision not only involves allocating capital to long term assets but also involves decisions of using funds which are obtained by selling those assets which become less profitable and less productive. It wise decisions to decompose depreciated assets which are not adding value and utilize those funds in securing other beneficial assets. An opportunity cost of capital needs to be calculating while dissolving such assets. The correct cut off rate is calculated by using this opportunity cost of the required rate of return (RRR)

Financial Decision
Financial decision is yet another important function which a financial manger must perform. It is important to make wise decisions about when, where and how should a business acquire funds. Funds can be acquired through many ways and channels. Broadly speaking a correct ratio of an equity and debt has to be maintained. This mix of equity capital and debt is known as a firm’s capital structure.

A firm tends to benefit most when the market value of a company’s share maximizes this not only is a sign of growth for the firm but also maximizes shareholders wealth. On the other hand the use of debt affects the risk and return of a shareholder. It is more risky though it may increase the return on equity funds.

A sound financial structure is said to be one which aims at maximizing shareholders return with minimum risk. In such a scenario the market value of the firm will maximize and hence an optimum capital structure would be achieved. Other than equity and debt there are several other tools which are used in deciding a firm capital structure.

Dividend Decision
Earning profit or a positive return is a common aim of all the businesses. But the key function a financial manger performs in case of profitability is to decide whether to distribute all the profits to the shareholder or retain all the profits or distribute part of the profits to the shareholder and retain the other half in the business.

It’s the financial manager’s responsibility to decide a optimum dividend policy which maximizes the market value of the firm. Hence an optimum dividend payout ratio is calculated. It is a common practice to pay regular dividends in case of profitability Another way is to issue bonus shares to existing shareholders.

Liquidity Decision
It is very important to maintain a liquidity position of a firm to avoid insolvency. Firm’s profitability, liquidity and risk all are associated with the investment in current assets. In order to maintain a tradeoff between profitability and liquidity it is important to invest sufficient funds in current assets. But since current assets do not earn anything for business therefore a proper calculation must be done before investing in current assets.

Current assets should properly be valued and disposed of from time to time once they become non profitable. Currents assets must be used in times of liquidity problems and times of insolvency.

Financial Planning – Definition, Objectives and Importance

Definition of Financial Planning
Financial Planning is the process of estimating the capital required and determining it’s competition. It is the process of framing financial policies in relation to procurement, investment and administration of funds of an enterprise.

Objectives of Financial Planning
Financial Planning has got many objectives to look forward to:

Determining capital requirements- This will depend upon factors like cost of current and fixed assets, promotional expenses and long- range planning. Capital requirements have to be looked with both aspects: short- term and long- term requirements.
Determining capital structure- The capital structure is the composition of capital, i.e., the relative kind and proportion of capital required in the business. This includes decisions of debt- equity ratio- both short-term and long- term.
Framing financial policies with regards to cash control, lending, borrowings, etc.
A finance manager ensures that the scarce financial resources are maximally utilized in the best possible manner at least cost in order to get maximum returns on investment.
Importance of Financial Planning
Financial Planning is process of framing objectives, policies, procedures, programmes and budgets regarding the financial activities of a concern. This ensures effective and adequate financial and investment policies. The importance can be outlined as-

Adequate funds have to be ensured.
Financial Planning helps in ensuring a reasonable balance between outflow and inflow of funds so that stability is maintained.
Financial Planning ensures that the suppliers of funds are easily investing in companies which exercise financial planning.
Financial Planning helps in making growth and expansion programmes which helps in long-run survival of the company.
Financial Planning reduces uncertainties with regards to changing market trends which can be faced easily through enough funds.
Financial Planning helps in reducing the uncertainties which can be a hindrance to growth of the company. This helps in ensuring stability an d profitability in concern.

Does cross-border banking enhance competition and cost efficiency? Evidence from Africa


We examine how cross-border banking affects competition and efficiency in Africa by distinguishing African and non-African CBB.

Increased competition induced by CBB is mainly driven by African CBB.

More efficient banks tend to weaken the effect of African CBB on competition.

Only non-African CBB encourages cost efficiency because of their global advantage.

Macroeconomic and institutional factors drive banking competition and efficiency.

Over the last two decades, the unprecedented expansion of cross-border banking on the African banking market has raised concern about their effects on host countries’ markets. This paper investigates to what extent this expansion has affected competition and cost efficiency in the African banking market using a sample of 429 active commercial banks from 2000 to 2015. Results show that CBB activities enhance competition, mainly driven by African CBB. At the regional scale, these effects are more substantial in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) because African CBBs have more expanded their activities in SSA. We also document that more efficient banks alleviate the competition induced by the expansion of African CBBs. The latter exhibit lower efficiency and therefore do not encourage bank efficiency. This study further shows that macroeconomic conditions and institutional variables are essential drivers of bank competition and cost efficiency in Africa. These results are robust to alternative estimation techniques (system-GMM, Quantile regression-Adaptative MCMC, Matching) and proxies of competition and cost efficiency.

Role of a Financial Manager

Financial activities of a firm is one of the most important and complex activities of a firm. Therefore in order to take care of these activities a financial manager performs all the requisite financial activities.

A financial manger is a person who takes care of all the important financial functions of an organization. The person in charge should maintain a far sightedness in order to ensure that the funds are utilized in the most efficient manner. His actions directly affect the Profitability, growth and goodwill of the firm.

Following are the main functions of a Financial Manager:

Raising of Funds
In order to meet the obligation of the business it is important to have enough cash and liquidity. A firm can raise funds by the way of equity and debt. It is the responsibility of a financial manager to decide the ratio between debt and equity. It is important to maintain a good balance between equity and debt.

Allocation of Funds
Once the funds are raised through different channels the next important function is to allocate the funds. The funds should be allocated in such a manner that they are optimally used. In order to allocate funds in the best possible manner the following point must be considered

The size of the firm and its growth capability
Status of assets whether they are long-term or short-term
Mode by which the funds are raised
These financial decisions directly and indirectly influence other managerial activities. Hence formation of a good asset mix and proper allocation of funds is one of the most important activity

Profit Planning
Profit earning is one of the prime functions of any business organization. Profit earning is important for survival and sustenance of any organization. Profit planning refers to proper usage of the profit generated by the firm.

Profit arises due to many factors such as pricing, industry competition, state of the economy, mechanism of demand and supply, cost and output. A healthy mix of variable and fixed factors of production can lead to an increase in the profitability of the firm.

Fixed costs are incurred by the use of fixed factors of production such as land and machinery. In order to maintain a tandem it is important to continuously value the depreciation cost of fixed cost of production. An opportunity cost must be calculated in order to replace those factors of production which has gone thrown wear and tear. If this is not noted then these fixed cost can cause huge fluctuations in profit.

Understanding Capital Markets
Shares of a company are traded on stock exchange and there is a continuous sale and purchase of securities. Hence a clear understanding of capital market is an important function of a financial manager. When securities are traded on stock market there involves a huge amount of risk involved. Therefore a financial manger understands and calculates the risk involved in this trading of shares and debentures.

Its on the discretion of a financial manager as to how to distribute the profits. Many investors do not like the firm to distribute the profits amongst share holders as dividend instead invest in the business itself to enhance growth. The practices of a financial manager directly impact the operation in capital market.

Tips For Choosing Timber Bifold Doors

These days, the primary focus of many people constructing or renovating their homes is space saving solutions. One of the best ways that maximum space can be achieved in your home is through the addition of bifold doors, which fold in on top of each other instead of swinging out into the room. Timber is an increasingly popular material for these doors; you should use the following tips when choosing timber bifolds for optimal results.

If you have never purchased or investigated bifold doors before, you may be surprised to learn that there are actually a number of materials that they can be constructed out of. Whilst aluminium and PVC doors have traditionally been quite popular thanks to the strength and maintenance benefits that they provide homeowners with, there can be no denying that timber has constantly been a viable player in the realm of bifolds.

Tip #1: There are a wide variety of timbers available for the construction of bifolds; it is up to you to choose the most appropriate one for your home. Not only should you be looking for a timber that blends in with the existing décor of the property, you should be looking for the best colour and grain.

Tip #2: You must carefully consider the size and the number of panels that your bifold doors comprise. If you are in the process of building your home, you should first find out the size of your doors and then create the opening accordingly; if you’re renovating, you will need to find panels to fit.

Tip #3: There are also a number of configuration options available for bifolds, which determine how the panels are folded and opened. You don’t always have a choice in the configuration of your doors, however, as this is often determined by the space requirement and arrangement of the room.

Tip #4: You must also carefully consider how the glass of your bifold doors will be glazed. As there are a number of glazing options currently available, you will be able to choose one that best meets the needs of your home (whether this is appearance, privacy or thermal insulation).

If you have always loved the look of timber bifold doors but have no idea where they would work in your home, you may be surprised to learn that they can actually work in almost any space. They are perfect for joining together your indoor and outdoor entertaining areas; for hiding away the mess and clutter of your children’s wardrobes; for blocking that unsightly laundry area from view when guests come to call; and so on.

This article shares valuable information about timber bifold doors. These bifolds in Melbourne can easily install in any area in your house and look perfect.

The Almost “Secret Ingredient” to a Highly Profitable Business

Recently, I watched probably one of my favorite movies of all time:

Kung Fu Panda.

Now, before you write this off as a stupid animated movie, there’s a GREAT business lesson hidden inside if you’re an expert, consultant, or coach.

Here’s the TL;DR version of the movie:

1) A big fat panda, Po, is “accidentally” picked to become the chosen one

2) His master, Shifu, doesn’t want to train him because Shifu believes Po was chosen by accident

3) The great master Oogway, however, tells Shifu that “there are no accidents”

4) Shifu finally teaches Po the art of kung fu. Eventually, Po is entrusted with the legendary “Dragon Scroll” which holds the ancient secrets to save the kingdom

5) Po opens the Dragon Scroll only to find… nothing… and realizes: “There is no secret ingredient.”

The essence is simple:

Po always had everything he needed to become “the chosen one.”

He didn’t need anything fancy.

What he actually needed was the right mentor and the right training program.

Here’s my point:

Just like Po realized that there is no secret to becoming the “chosen one.”

No matter what the Fakebook guru’s preach, there is *NO* secret “hack,” “funnel,” or “tactic” that will turn your business into a profitable one.

Of course, you *can* find new tactics, hacks, and whatever. But, if your foundation isn’t solid (i.e., if your strategy is weak). It won’t matter which new hack you try to install into your business.

Whether that’s Facebook hacks… webinars… Instagram… or, insert whatever new tactic the latest Fakebook guru’s try to shove down your throat. Eventually, it’s only a matter of time before your business crumbles beneath its own weight.

The closest thing to a “hack” that can take you from frazzled entrepreneur to profitable business owner is learning how to write emails that sell.

The only difference is that email marketing isn’t a hack… it’s a powerful strategy.

In my opinion (which, of course, makes it a fact).

This was true when I worked my corporate job and sold for millions of dollars by email and online marketing.

And it’s been true in my own business.

To round this off.

Let me close with my favorite quote from the late, great, and esteemed, Mr. Eugene M. Schwartz.

This quote is as relevant today as it was when Eugene Schwartz unleashed these true words upon the world of advertising:

“The task of a copywriter is not to create this mass desire – but to channel and direct it.” – Gene Schwartz

Take that to heart the next time you sit down to write your latest email designed to sell.
If you want to discover how to 2x your sales and get more clients for your business, my free online training session is a great place to start.

You’ll learn how to use the old-school principle of “Infotainment” to write emails that people LOVE to read. Including: How to write stories so compelling they immediately draw customers in – even if you’re not a professional writer… and much more.

Holistic Home Decor and Furniture

A holistic life is acknowledging the impact of your actions as they lay their imprint on your being, your home and the world, the cosmos. A parody of results that come from your actions, living life holistically in complete fullness and being aware of the impact of your actions.

A holistic home embraces your mind, body, spirit, and space in a oneness. The mind sees how you live and decorate with mindful intention. The physical aspects of decor, furniture and accessories concern the body. The spirit covers the chi or the soul of your home.

Copper and iron are earthing and grounding metals that have used for many years in old world doors and architecture. Yes, they strengthen the wood but are also known to balance the energy of the dwelling by removing the harmful ions and grounding them to earth. The brass cladded doors seen in old Indian Havelis or the iron studded gates, all work on the principle of holistic living, interacting with Mother Earth in a positive way.

The vibration that emanates from old world architecture like the triple veranda arches that lined the courtyards of mansions, handcarved in dark teak wood, anchored by iron nails, the leaves and paisley bringing in the elements of nature, it is imperative to realize the balance of energy. Your home is as beautiful as you and is a channel for refreshing, universal healing energy. The armoires and cabinets made from reclaimed woods with earthy patinas and carved chakras expand your aura and enable us to interact with the energy of the universe, which comes through us in a rainbow of healing vibration. Old world, holistic carvings and natural earthy color tones, the turquoise sideboard and coffee tables bring the energy of the sparkling stream that runs through the woods gathering within it tiny pebbles and plants in its journey.

Keeping your aura at a high vibrational energy, the carved barndoors of Krishna, Ganesha and Buddha are naturally charged with energetic properties. The carvings are so serene and beautiful and bring positive energy to your life. Create and manifest an intention by wishing on positive thoughts or goals of how you want your life to play out and put your energy into them. Accessorize with soft sari curtains, handmade pillows and cotton throws and you will connect with that energy of your house.

A holistically balanced home is absolutely necessary for the body to regenerate. Bring in natural wood furniture like consoles made from old doors that increase peace and positive energy. Decorate with plants to take away stress and anxiety and encourage relaxation and balance. Old woods carry healing energy vibes that have been infused in them since several years. The holistic healing energy of the tribal damchiya, the dancing lights in the mirrors that ward of ill omens and bring in positive vibes, the spirit guides us to live intentionally. Holistic living and decorating with old world elements brings in the healing and powerful vibration of the universe in a world that is beset with troubles.